Ywhae gene = 14-3-3 epsilon = tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, epsilon polypeptide (Ywhae)
Mus musculus tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, epsilon polypeptide (Ywhae), mRNA NCBI Reference Sequence: NM_009536.4
Dr. Yi Zhou's 14-3-3 FKO (Thy1-YFP-R18) Transgenic Mice
See SFN abstracts (2010) 53.1/M17 and (2011) 790.09/FF16
From Kourtney Graham's Honor's Thesis:
In order to study the role of 14-3-3 proteins in the nervous system_ in vivo_, we have successfully created lines of neuronal-specific transgenic mice that may inhibit 14-3-3 dependent cellular processes. These transgenic mice express a YFP-fused peptide (R18) which binds to endogenous 14-3-3, and thus blocking its capability to interact with its binding partners; and are therefore considered to be a functional knockout. The transgenes are expressed under the control of the Thy-1 promoter which is neuronal-specific and produces variation of transgene expression in different brain regions, which is great among founder lines but minimal among descendants of a single founder (Feng et al. 2000). To minimize strain-dependent genetic variation, we have backcrossed the founder lines with wild-type C57BL/6 mice for at least 8 generations.
From Sun et al PMID 23861400 : Glutamatergic kainate receptors (KAR) KAR-EPSCs at mossy fiber-CA3 synapses decay significantly faster in the 14-3-3 functional knock-out mice (but no difference in NMDA-R or AMPA-R EPSC in same synapses)
R18 (aka difopein) is a synthetic unphosphorylated peptide (MW 2309.6) which binds to the same amphipathic groove on the surface of 14-3-3 as phosphorylated peptides, with high affinity for all 7 mammalian isoforms of 14-3-3.
Commercial source of peptide [Enzo #BML-P214-0001 http://www.enzolifesciences.com/BML-P214/r18-peptide/]
YFP is 239 amino acids long (717 bp) according to plasmid map of Invitrogen Vivid ColorsTM pcDNATM/6.2 N-terminal EmGFP/YFP-DEST vectors see p, 28 of the manual. R18 is 21 amino acids long (63 bp), so total YFP-R18 fusion protein should be ~ 260 amino acids (780 bp).
14-3-3 FKO papers
Vogt, Peggy, "Exploring the Function of 14-3-3 Proteins in Neurodegenerative Disease" (2011). Honors Theses. Paper 42.
C. Sun, H. Qiao, Q. Zhou, Y. Wang, Y. Wu, Y. Zhou, et al., Modulation of GluK2a Subunit-containing Kainate Receptors by 14-3-3 Proteins, J Biol Chem. 288 (2013) 24676–24690. PMID 23861400
Qiao H, Foote M, Graham K, Wu Y, Zhou Y. 14-3-3 proteins are required for hippocampal long-term potentiation and associative learning and memory. J Neurosci. 34(2014):4801-8. PMID 24695700