Trimethylthiazoline (TMT), aka 2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline, aka 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline is a constiuent of fox urine that is an innately aversive odor to rodents.
C6H11NS, MW 129.22, predicted (ACD labs) density 1.106 g/ml, PubChem CID 263626, CAS 189302-32-7
No MSDS available, but found the MSDS for a similar (?) compound: 2-2-Dimethyl-3-thiazoline MSDS sheet
NOT the same as: 2,4,5-Trimethylthiazole, another predator odor.
ConTech Enterprises (Arvhived) (formerly Phero-Tech), TMT $150.00 1g
Contech Enterprises 7572 Progress Way Delta, B.C. Canada, V4G 1E9 Tel: 604.940.9944 local 308 Fax: 604.940.9402
Notes on Use in Rodent Odor Aversion experiments
As of April 2013, I suggest using 5 ul of 50% TMT (dissolved in water, in mice from Buron 2007 PMID 17907837 )
5 ul of 1% TMT (in rats from Endres 2009 PMID 19617424) --I think it is a 1% solution: Endres refers to "5 μl 10–1 % vol. TMT" as 3.87μmol. which assuming a density for TMT of 1 g/cm<super>3</super>, would be 5 ul of 1% (confusingly, 10-1 % = 0.1% is probably a typo; 1% = 10-0%).)
Also in mice from Hacquemand 2013 PMID 23089645 found 10 ul of 1% or 0.1% ( but not 0.01%) TMT in water enhanced freezing.
Solubility: TMT is most soluble in organic solvents (e.g. methanol, ethanol etc.) but many groups appear to mix TMT with water -- may be more of suspension than a solution.
Note: make a table of concentration, Rx, measure, and results
Rosen 2004 -- review of procedures and neural circuitry (but no details)
Ferrero 2011 in rats: "Rats were exposed to aqueous odor- containing solutions (1 mL of water, 10% 2-phenylethylamine, 10% benzylamine, or 2% TMT, 30 min, n = 16, 20, 8, 16) in a small box (32 × 20 × 16 cm), and rapidly decapitated for plasma collection. "
Fendt M, Endres T, Lowry CA, Apfelbach R, McGregor IS (2005) TMT-induced autonomic and behavioral changes and the neural basis of its processing. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 29:1145–1156.
In Mice: For zif268 "Adult male mice were habituated to the cage for 2 h, and then filter paper scented with one of the following odorants was presented for 30min: 2MB acid (870uM), n-pentanal (370uM) or TMT (1,200 uM)."
"filter paper (2 3 2 cm) scented with a test odorant was introduced. Investigation times for the filter paper during the 3-min test period were measured. The mouse behaviour was recorded with a digital video camera for the analysis. Odorants used were: guaiacol (158 uM), eugenol (128 uM), vanillin (64 uM), 2MB acid (174uM), cyclobutanecarboxylic acid (206uM), iso-amyl amine (16.8uM), n-pentanal (74 uM), hexanal (156 uM), 2-hexanone (158 uM, Tokyo chemical industry), TMT (314 uM, Pherotech), peanut butter (10% w/v, 40 ul), urine of female mice (20 ul) and snow leopard urine (20 ul). "
"a filter paper scented with 20 ul test odorant was introduced into the smaller compartment. Times (seconds) spent in the larger compartment were measured during the 3-min test period. Avoidance times were recorded as the time spent in the larger compart- ment for each odorant subtracted by the time spent for distilled water. The mouse behaviour was recorded with a digital video camera for the analysis. Odorants used were 2MB acid (8.7M), iso-amyl amine (8.4M) and TMT (15.7 M)."
"Odorant concentrations were: 2MB acid (8.7 M), cyclobutanecarboxylic acid (10.3 M), n-pentanal (3.7 M), hexanal (7.8 M), eugenol (6.4 M), (–)carvone (6.3 M, Tokyo chemical industry), (1)carvone (6.2 M, Tokyo chemical industry) and TMT (15.7 M). For each odorant, 20 ul was used."
"Filter paper, scented with either double-distilled water or TMT (77.6 ul each), was quietly dropped into the cage with great care not to excite the animal"
Water (a, 10 ul) or test odors (b, c, or d, 1 ￼ ul) were applied on a filter paper (2 x 2 cm) taped to the inside of a small plastic weighing boat (4.5 x 4.5 cm). [seems like 1 ul neat]
Galliot 2012 -- notes that over 30 ul TMT stimulates trigeminal
1.25 ul of odorants (PEA, TMT or toluene) were deposited on four filter paper strips fixed to the top of the wall and arranged according to the four vir- tual quadrants, in order to allow a homogenous diffusion of odors.
5 ul of the three different odorants were placed on each of the four arms of the maze by rubbing with soaked filter paper
We used TMT (Phero tech, Delta, BC, CANADA) as the predator odor, and rose oil (rose; ChromaDex, Irvine, CA, USA) was used for odor stimulation with and without TMT. Mice were placed singly in small cages without any floor chips. Following habituation for 5–10 min, a small piece (a quadrant of What- man no. 2 filter paper, which is 9 cm in diameter) of filter paper (Whatman Japan, Tokyo, Japan) was put in the cage, and 0.2 ml of odor solution was dropped on it. Different groups of animals were exposed to either filtered DDW for no-odor control (n = 12), 1.2 mM TMT alone (n = 18), 0.1% v/v rose alone (n = 18), or a combination of TMT and rose (n=18).
Buron, 2007 PMID 17907837
In mice: Both ends of the corridor contained a watch glass with a filter paper soaked with either 5 ul of TMT (pure, diluted at 50% or 10%), or distilled water (control space), or 3 g of fox feces. [pure and 50% equally effacious at inducing avoidance; 10% significant but not very large avoidance]
Rats were exposed to TMT (PheroTech; 40 ul neat-pipetted onto filter paper on top of the wire cage top) for 15 min.